The American Psychological Association publishes a manual that is widely used in academia to specify standards for academic writing. It prescribes formatting details like page margins, font types and sizes, and uniform heading structure. It also details how to cite sources of information.
The attribution of sources consists of narrative citations or parenthetical citations in the paper’s body and the listing of those sources cited in the paper on the references pages at the end of the paper. Sources of information must be acknowledged with citations to avoid plagiarism (explained elsewhere in the Writing Studio website) and to inform readers of student papers where information in the paper came from if they are interested in reviewing those sources.
A typical narrative citation would be like the following:
According to Smith and Jones (2019), the factors most affecting …
A typical parenthetical citation would be like the following:
… are most affected by those factors (Smith & Jones, 2019).
The citations of quoted material include a page or paragraph number:
… claimed “the factor that cannot be ignored is cost” (Smith & Jones, 2019, p. 43).
Quotations of 40 words or more are formatted somewhat differently. The differences are explained in the APA Manual Seventh Edition in section 8.27.
The specific form of a citation depends on the number of authors, whether there are authors associated with the written work, whether or not there is a year of publication, and whether there is more than one source listed on the References page with the same author(s) and year of publication. There is also a specific way to cite a primary source you found by reading a secondary source during your research. The details for formatting these different kinds of citations are in the APA Manual.
Once you have written the paper and cited specific sources in it, create a References section. The sources are listed in alphabetical order and formatted with a “Hanging” indent. The attached PDF contains examples of the basic formats.
Assume that your audience knows something about your topic but may not know everything that you do. You should write in a way that grabs their interest. Avoid writing in an informal, conversational tone. Use a business-like tone, and try to be concise with your choice of words. In every instance, try to make your point by using as few words as possible.
Where possible, avoid the first person pronouns I, me, my, we, us, our, myself, ourselves and second person pronouns you, your, yourself, yourselves. These pronouns are too informal for academic writing.
Mrs. Percy and Mr. Williams believed in me. They were more than instructors, they tried to get to know you as a person and tried to understand your goals so they could push you towards them. And Mrs. Crawford from student services helped me find a job before I even graduated. She was dedicated to my overall success.
Going to Keiser University was one of the greatest experiences in my life. All of my deans, professors, and staff made me feel that I was a part of something very special, and I am. I would recommend for anyone to get their education at Keiser University.
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If not for my education at Keiser I probably would not be where I am today, in both life and career. It is because of going to Keiser and the instructors I had that I joined a club started by Mr. Williams, The Lakeland Shooters Photography Group, which allowed me to venture into an amazing and very creative field that I use to enhance all aspects of my life.
The Design program at Keiser University was filled with real world learning and hands on instruction… Based on the portfolio I created while a student at Keiser University, I landed a job in Graphic Design for a major online retailer immediately after graduation.
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Keiser helped change my life by getting my education at the right school! I had been going to another school before, I dropped out because I felt that I was not getting enough information. When I found out about Keiser, I was pleased because the instructors were great.
My decision to attend Keiser University has been one of the best decisions I’ve made. I chose to enroll in the Information Technology program… The one-class-a-month pace helped incredibly with my self-discipline.
The BA for Business Administration at Keiser has to be one of the best in the nation. Keiser takes the basics that are taught at the Associates level and uses them to strengthen your skills and knowledge.
I found that Keiser University’s Nuclear Medicine program of advanced studies and small class size was a perfect fit. I never came across a faculty member who wasn’t truly interested.